What is a 1.5V Lithium Battery?
A 1.5V lithium battery is a rechargeable lithium battery that maintains a constant voltage of 1.5V throughout its entire discharge cycle without voltage drop. Internally, it utilizes a 3.6V lithium-ion cell, and through internal circuitry control, it regulates the output voltage to achieve 1.5V. It features robust power capabilities, making it particularly suitable for various high-current and high-voltage demanding electronic devices. The 1.5V lithium battery employs a lithium-ion cell, offering fast charging speeds. A single AA battery with a capacity of 3300mWh can be fully charged in just 2 hours, whereas traditional nickel-metal hydride rechargeable batteries take around 10 hours to reach full charge.
The 1.5V batteries are classified as No. 1, No. 5, and No. 7 batteries.
The No. 1 battery, also known as a D-type battery, has a voltage rating of 1.5V and a current of 1A. It has a diameter of 32.2mm, a height of 59mm, and a short-circuit current ranging from 1.5A to 2A.
The common No. 5 battery is a disposable alkaline battery, with a nominal voltage of 1.5V, also referred to as “AA alkaline battery.” The capacity of AA alkaline batteries typically ranges from 600 to 700 milliampere-hours (mAh). Rechargeable No. 5 batteries include nickel-metal hydride (NiMH), nickel-cadmium (NiCd), and iron lithium, with NiCd batteries being phased out. NiMH batteries have a maximum capacity of 2700mAh at 1.2V, while iron lithium batteries can reach up to 3000mAh at 3.2V.
The standard dimensions for the No. 7 battery are a height of 43.6±0.5mm and a diameter of 10.1±0.2mm. The No. 7 battery comes in various types, including dry cells, lithium batteries, nickel-metal hydride batteries, and nickel-cadmium batteries. The commonly used alkaline No. 7 battery (such as the NAMF) has a voltage of 1.5V and a capacity of approximately 1300mAh, also known as LR03. The capacity of No. 5 batteries generally exceeds 1600mAh, while No. 7 batteries typically do not exceed 900mAh.
Can 1.5V and 1.2V be interchangeable?
The compatibility between 1.2V and 1.5V batteries depends on the specific usage conditions. For electronic devices with higher voltage requirements, a 1.2V battery may struggle to power them adequately. The primary distinction lies in the fact that 1.2V batteries are rechargeable, while 1.5V batteries are not rechargeable.
Advantages of 1.5V Lithium-Ion Batteries
There are two main types of batteries in the market: rechargeable and non-rechargeable, also known as disposable batteries. However, disposable batteries are not as popular nowadays since many of our devices and appliances are powered by electricity, necessitating a non-disposable power supply that can be reused or recycled to reduce long-term operational costs.
Therefore, there is no need to replace the power source; instead, any available power source can be used to charge it, and specific chargers are provided for batteries installed in devices or appliances.
The shift from traditional energy sources such as fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas, etc.) to renewable energy sources like solar, wind, hydro, biomass, etc., has led to the challenge of storing energy collected from these variable sources. Most AA or AAA batteries worldwide are typically nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) batteries or nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries, but they usually provide a standard voltage of 1.2V, which is insufficient for many electronic devices. Therefore, 1.5V batteries, often lithium-ion batteries, are used, equivalent to NiMH batteries but with better strength to power devices requiring 1.5V batteries.
Whether NiMH batteries are kept fully charged or not, their capacity decreases over time. However, the capacity of lithium-ion batteries does not fluctuate like NiMH batteries. After cycles of charging and discharging, the capacity of lithium-ion 1.5V batteries typically remains at 80%. After around 500-1000 cycles, the capacity starts to decline more noticeably, and a well-maintained 1.5V lithium-ion battery will have its capacity reduced to 80%, which decreases at an increased rate after more usage.
Before lithium-ion batteries, disposable alkaline batteries were used to power devices requiring 1.5V batteries. However, after the introduction of lithium-ion batteries, they rapidly replaced disposable alkaline batteries due to their rechargeability, eliminating the need for repeated replacements of power sources.
Applications of 1.5V Lithium-Ion Batteries
1.5V lithium-ion batteries have a wide range of applications in our daily lives. Virtually all electronic devices we use require these 1.5V small AA lithium-ion batteries and other 1.2V disposable batteries. Therefore, the importance of batteries in our daily lives cannot be simply overlooked. In our appliances, vehicles, and nearly every place imaginable, our hybrid power facilities of the future will rely on these batteries as we transition to green energy entirely during the day due to the current shortage of traditional energy sources and the climate change caused by global warming.
The 1.5V lithium-ion batteries can be recharged, making them both economical and environmentally friendly. As they can be recharged using a charger around 500-1000 times before any defects occur, one 1.5V lithium-ion battery is equivalent to 1000 disposable batteries.
This also reduces the number of spent batteries, albeit at a slightly higher cost, and decreases the presence of many toxic substances in the environment associated with manufacturing disposable batteries, such as alkaline, nickel, zinc, mercury, lead, and cadmium.
When we dispose of batteries, these toxic elements can enter the environment, causing detrimental effects once they infiltrate our bodies or the bodies of animals.
Therefore, overall, compared to disposable batteries, 1.5V rechargeable lithium-ion batteries have a longer lifespan, are more economical, pose less harm to the environment, and, on the other hand, can be recycled after use without causing any harm.
Advancements in 1.5V Lithium-Ion Batteries
Now, lithium-ion batteries are making further advancements. These metals are being applied, showing better chemical properties for 1.5V batteries after research and development, yielding improved results. Examples include lithium-sulfur, lithium air, sodium-ion, and some solid-state batteries. Lithium-ion solar batteries have already been utilized by many, offering higher energy density, less weight, and longer lifespans. Such batteries can be charged through solar photovoltaics.